Esophageal Cancer (cont)
Tests and procedures used to diagnose esophageal cancer include:
- Using a scope to examine your esophagus (endoscopy). During endoscopy, your doctor passes a hollow tube equipped with a lens (endoscope) down your throat and into your esophagus. Using the endoscope, your doctor examines your esophagus looking for cancer or areas of irritation.
- X-rays of your esophagus. Sometimes called a barium swallow, an upper gastrointestinal series or an esophagram, this series of X-rays is used to examine your esophagus. During the test, you drink a thick liquid (barium) that temporarily coats the lining of your esophagus, so the lining shows up clearly on the X-rays.
- Collecting a sample of tissue for testing (biopsy). A special scope passed down your throat into your esophagus (endoscope) or down your windpipe and into your lungs (bronchoscope) can be used to collect a sample of suspicious tissue (biopsy). What type of biopsy procedure you undergo depends on your situation. The tissue sample is sent to a laboratory to look for cancer cells.
Esophageal cancer staging
When you’re diagnosed with esophageal cancer, your doctor works to determine the extent (stage) of the cancer. Your cancer’s stage helps determine your treatment options. Tests used in staging esophageal cancer include computerized tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET).
What treatments you receive for esophageal cancer are based on the type of cells involved in your cancer, your cancer’s stage, your overall health and your preferences for treatment. Treatments include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.